|Ich könnte mir vorstellen ein kurzer wissenschaftlich-theoretischer Einstieg in die Thematik wäre hilfreich :|
Rudolf Anthes : Mythologie und der gesunde Menschenverstand in Ägypten1. - In: Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft zu Berlin 96. - 1965. - S. 5 - 40 :
In an enormously intricate and verbose article, the author explains in four sections that behind complicate Egyptian mythological representations there are quite rational thoughts:
1. Henri Frankfort's thesis of the "mythopoeic" thinking of the ancient Egyptians is disputable; there are many contradictions to it in Egyptian thinking. The author quotes four instances from Egyptian texts in which at the base of a mythological representation there lie rational considerations.
2. A long explanation of a good example of an intricate mythological idea: the Heavenly Cow, a mixture of celestial ideas. The author introduces the term “religious symbol”.
3. An explanation of the cosmic pedigree of gods (Atum-Shu, Tefnut-Geb, Nut-Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, Seth). In view of the different characteristics of the composing deities, this composition does not seem very balanced. Besides, it is Heliopolitan, but Re does not occur in it. A rational explanation is to regard this pedigree as a schematic representation of the position of a new king (who, according to the dogma, was Horus) in relation to his divine forbears.
4. About the theological foundation of the identification of the Egyptian king with Horus. In no apparent connection with the foregoing: about animal cults. Animal deities were symbols of characteristic forces.
(OEB / J.F.B.)
Jacobus van Dijk : Myth and Mythmaking in Ancient Egypt2. - In: Civilizations of the Ancient Near East 3. - 1995. - S. 1697 - 1709. - [PDF - 2,9 MB].
After an introduction on the language and the antiquity of myth and on mystery and myth in Ancient Egypt the author describes the creation myths according to the Heliopolitan, the Memphite, the Hermopolitan and the Theban theogonies. More extensively he discusses the myth of Osiris. At the end sections on the relation between Re and Osiris and on the sparse texts that deal with the creation of humanity.
Bibliography arranged by subject and cross-references to related articles included here added.
(OEB / W.H.)
Katja Goebs : A Functional Approach to Egyptian Myth and Mythemes3. - In: Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 2. - 2002. - S. 27 - 59.
The article re-examines the definition of the Egyptian mythical tradition as notably different from that of other cultures. In particular, the supposed late development of Egyptian (narrative) myths, which has traditionally been inferred from the variability in both content and form of mythical fragments/mythemes in different contexts, is re-evaluated. It is argued that the form a myth or mytheme takes is dependent on the function of the context in which it is used, with the (structural) relationships between actors (or actors and objects) taking precedence over their identity, which is variable. This apparent flexibility should be regarded as a positive, rather than a limiting feature of myths, since it allows them to be adapted to a variety of contexts and purposes. The author reviews a wide range of approaches to myth within and outside Egyptology before presenting case studies of important motifs, using material from sources from the Pyramid anmd Coffin Texts, through the Cult Ritual, to temple sources of the Graeco-Roman period. (OEB / K.G.)
Die genannten Artikel bieten natürlich auch umfangreiche Literaturhinweise. Ich persönlich mag zum Thema ganz besonders die Arbeiten von Erik Hornung und Stephen Quirke.
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