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Ägyptologie Forum >> Ägyptische Götterwelt

1) Papyrus des Nu (Nww)
 StellaSteen am 13.11.2021 um 23:24:35


Ich habe vor kurzem den Papyrus des Nu (Nww) entdeckt (Übersetzung auf englisch). Vielleicht die größte Überraschung meines Lebens!!
Besonders spannend finde ich die Gesetze/Gebote (MA'AT) in Bezug zu "Sklaven":
• Ich habe mich nicht über einen "Sklaven" hoch gestellt.
• Ich habe nicht einen "Sklaven" zu seinem Herrn verunglimpft.
Man findet kaum Informationen im Netz. Datierung ~1500v.Chr.?
Waren die 99 "Gebote" ein Standard in der 18. Dynastie?
Der Ursprung der Ma'at, laut Gitta Warnemünde sind die ältesten Belege für Ma’at aus der 2. Dynastie (um 2707–2216 v. Chr.) und konkret als "Norm" Pyramidentexten von Unas (ca. 2375 v. Chr.)
Kennt jemand von Euch den Kontext von Pyramidentexten von Unas im Bezug zu Ma'at? Gab es damals noch die 42 "Gebote"?  

PS: Ist es nicht spektakulär, dass eine antike Kultur so höhe ethische Standars gehabt hat? Und ist es nicht skandalös, dass kaum jemand davon weißt und dass man es "kaum" im Netzt findet?

Papyrus of Nu (Nww)

1) I have not committed sins against men.
2) I have not opposed my family and kinsfolk.
3) I have not acted fraudulently in the Seat of Truth.
4) I have not known men who were of no account.
5) I have not wrought evil.
6) I have not made it to be the first [consideration daily that unnecessary] work should be done for me.
7) I have not brought forward my name for dignities.
8) I have not [attempted] to direct servants [I have not belittled God].
9) I have not defrauded the humble man of his property.
10) I have not done what the gods abominate.
11) I have not vilified a slave to his master.
12) I have not inflicted pain.
13) I have not caused anyone to go hungry.
14) I have not made any man to weep.
15) I have not committed murder.
16) I have not given the order for murder to be committed.
17) I have not caused calamities to befall men and women.
18) I have not plundered the offerings in the temples.
19) I have not defrauded the gods of their cake-offerings.
20) I have not carried off the fenkhu cakes [offered to] the Spirits.
21) I have not committed fornication.
22) I have not masturbated [in the sanctuaries of the god of my city].
23) I have not diminished from the bushel.
24) I have not filched [land from my neighbour's estate and] added it to my own acre.
25) I have not encroached upon the fields [of others].
26) I have not added to the weights of the scales.
27) I have not depressed the pointer of the balance.
28) I have not carried away the milk from the mouths of children.
29) I have not driven the cattle away from their pastures.
30) I have not snared the geese in the goose-pens of the gods.
31) I have not caught fish with bait made of the bodies of the same kind of fish.
32) I have not stopped water when it should flow.
33) I have not made a cutting in a canal of running water.
34) I have not extinguished a fire when it should burn.
35) I have not violated the times [of offering] the chosen meat offerings.
36) I have not driven away the cattle on the estates of the gods.
37) I have not turned back the god at his appearances.
38) I have not committed sin.
39) I have not committed robbery with violence.
40) I have not stolen.
41) I have not slain men and women.
42) I have not stolen grain.
43) I have not purloined offerings.
44) I have not stolen the property of God.
45) I have not uttered lies.
46) I have not carried away food.
47) I have not uttered curses.
48) I have not committed adultery.
49) I have not lain with men.
50) I have made none to weep.
51) I have not eaten the heart.
52) I have not attacked any man.
53) I am not a man of deceit.
54) I have not stolen cultivated land.
55) I have not been an eavesdropper.
56) I have not slandered [no man].
57) I have not been angry without just cause.
58) I have not debauched the wife of any man.
59) I have not polluted myself.
60) I have terrorized none.
61) I have not transgressed [the law].
62) I have not been wroth.
63) I have not shut my ears to the words of truth.
64) I have not blasphemed.
65) I am not a man of violence.
66) I have not been a stirrer up of strife.
67) I have not acted with undue haste.
68) I have not pried into matters.
69) I have not multiplied my words in speaking.
70) I have wronged none.
71) I have done no evil.
72) I have not worked witchcraft against the king.
73) I have never raised my voice.
74) I have not cursed God.
75) I have not acted with arrogance.
76) I have not stolen the bread of the gods.
77) I have not carried away the khenfu cakes from the Spirits of the dead.
78) I have not snatched away the bread of the child, nor treated with contempt the god of my city.
79) I have not slain the cattle belonging to the god.
80) I have not made light the bushel.
81) I have not acted deceitfully.
82) I have not uttered evil words.
83) I have not slain a bull which was the property of the god.
84) I have not pillaged the lands which have been ploughed.
85) I have never pried into matters [to make mischief].
86) I have not set my mouth in motion.
87) I have not been wroth except with reason.
88) I have not been a man of anger.
89) I have not turned a deaf ear to the words of truth.
90) I have not stirred up strife.
91) I have not committed acts of sexual impurity, or lain with men.
92) I have cursed no man.
93) I have not acted in a violent or oppressive manner.
94) I have not acted [or judged] hastily.
95) I have not done things to effect the cursing of [the king].
96) I have not acted with insufferable insolence.
97) I have not sought to make myself unduly distinguished.
98) I have not increased my wealth except through such things are [justly] my own possessions.
99) I have not scorned [or treated with contempt] the god of my town.